farmdaisy® powdered formula products for infant and young children are processed by Farmland Dairy Pty. Ltd (ACN 143 965 100), which is located in Auburn NSW Australia. Farmland Dairy has newly set up facilities for processing powdered formula by dry method. The premises has been granted the Certificate of Registration of an Export Registered Establishment (Reg. No. 1933) by Australian Quarantine and Inspection Services of Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia, and successfully passed through regular audits of Food Authority of NSW. Farmland Dairy has HACCP Certification by HACCP Australia. Major ingredients so called “base powder” are supplied by Australian dairy companies using wet method. Packaging materials are also supplied by local top companies.
On the basis of meeting basic requirements of growth and development by infant and young children, certain nutritional substances that may help with intestinal heath and nerve tissue development are added into the formula:
α-Lactalbumin α-Lactalbumin enriched whey protein is added to the infant formula whereas α-Lactalbumin concentration is also raised through increased whey protein proportions (from 20% of total protein in cow milk to 40-50%) in the other two formula namely follow-on and toddler formula. α-Lactalbumin is the dominant protein in human milk, rich in tryptophan which is typically the limiting amino acid in infant formula due to lower α-Lactalbumin content in cow milk whey as compared with human milk protein. Heine et al (1996) studied the effect of α-Lactalbumin enrichment on the tryptophan supply and found that serum tryptophan levels of formula-fed infants with a higher tryptophan from α-Lactalbumin enrichment did not differ from a breastfed control group. Lien EL (2003) reported that a α-Lactalbumin-enriched experimental formula (α-Lactalbumin at 2.2g/L, similar to 2.4g/L in human milk) at lower amount of total protein concentration (total of 14g protein/L compared to a control of total 15g protein/L) supported normal growth and maintained protein status at the lower amounts of protein consumption. These studies suggest addition of α-Lactalbumin in cow milk formula improves balance of amino acids and thus increases in protein utilization.
Omega 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) Human milk fat contains at least 0.2% DHA, one of the Omega 3 LCPUFAs. DHA is involved in growth and development of brain, vision and nerve. Both the cognitive and motor subscales of the mental development index (MDI) showed a significant developmental age advantage for DHA- and DHA+AA (an Omega 6 LCPUFA, needs to be added with DHA for balance of fatty acids) -supplemented groups over the control group. Early dietary supply of DHA was a major dietary determinant of improved performance on the MDI (Birch et al., 2000). farmdaisy® series use premium DHA from fish oil and AA of a famous USA brand.
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional protein of exocrine secretions of mammals. It is present at higher amount in human milk than that in cow milk (about 1000mg/L in human milk vs about 100-150mg/L in cow milk). It prohibits growth of pathogenic microorganisms and is anti-oxidization of lipids mainly through binding and transferring iron in the body. Lactoferrin from cow milk structurally varies from that from human milk however it may help with immunity and gut health of babies if being added into formula products.
Nucleotides Nucleotides are structural components of gene. They may be used by intestinal mucosal cells to make newborn’s gut stronger. Brunser et al. (1994) studied infants from a lower socioeconomic group in Chile and reported that the group fed formula with nucleotides (14.2mg nucleotides/100g powder, about 2mg/100mL made up milk for 3 months) experienced significantly lower number of first episodes of diarrhea. Nucleotides supplemented infants born small showed a greater gain in weight, length and head circumference between birth and 6 months (Cosgrove, 1998).
Choline: Choline is present in a number of different forms in milk. Mature human milk contains 3.1 mg/100 kcal, with total available level to 12.6mg/kcal. The choline content doubles during the first week after birth. In the newborn the plasma concentration of free choline is significant greater than in adults falling to adult levels by one year. Choline serves as the precursor for the synthesis of phosphatidyle choline (PC), the main phospholipid in brain, liver and other tissue. PC plays a role in normal membrane composition and signaling processes, the transport of cholesterol and lipid in blood, and normal brain development. Choline is oxidized to betaine, a major source of methyl groups for DNA methylation. Choline is a substrate for synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (EC SCF 2003). Choline can be produced in the body however its status may in part be determined by the availability of other nutrients such as serine, methionine, folate, vitamin B12 and betaine. Choline concentration in blood is important in getting choline into the brain for use to prevent neural nonclosure and poor brain development. Human brain growth is most rapid during the third trimester of pregnancy and continues to be rapid to approximately five years of age.
Taurine: Taurine is an organic acid that is found in most tissues and in human milk at all lactational stages (3.4-8.0 mg/100mL). It is practically absent in mature cow’s milk and has been added to many infant formulae without adverse effects. Taurine has recognized functions in bile acid conjugation. It is found in high concentrations in foetal and neonatal human btrain (Gaull, 1989). Taurine is essential for cardiovascular function, and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina and the central nervous system (Huxtable, 1992).
L-Carnitine: L-Carnitine in human milk is about 0.9-1.2mg/100kcal. Cow’s milk contains higher carnitine therefore its addition is not considered necessory. Carnitine is biosynthesized from amino acids lysine and methionine. It plays critical role in fat metabolism and energy supply: to transport long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix so they can be broken down through β – oxidation to acetyle CoA to obtain usable energy via the citric acid cycle. Infant receiving unsupplemented soy formula for 112days showed lower serium levels of carnitine, higher levels of free fatty acids and an increased excretion of medium-chain dicarboxylic acids (Olson et al., 1989).
The minimal dietary carnitine requirement of a newborn infant has been estimated to be 1.7 mg/kg/day due to a practically absent endogenous synthesis (Scholte and de Jonge, 1987).
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)/Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS): Human milk contains a complex mixture of more than 130 different oligosaccharides comprising a total concentration of 8-12 g/L in mature milk. It has been shown that human milk oligosaccharides induce an increase in the number of Bifidobacteria of colonic flora in breast-fed infants, accompanied with a significant reduction in the number of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Kunz et al., 2000). FOS is not found in human milk, it naturally occurs in food such as chicory and onion. GOS is found only in trace amounts in human milk. Many fermented milk products contain GOS obtained from lactose by β-galactosidases of lactic bacteria. Ingestion of FOS and GOS can lead to an increase of faecal population of Bifidobacteria and to a decrease of potential detrimental bacteria in adult humans. In Japan GOS has been used as an ingredient in infant and follow-on formula for some 15 years. A significant increase of total faecal bifidobacteria was observed in studies that infants were given formula supplemented with per 100mL 0.4-1g GOS (90%) and FOS (10%), as well as increase of stool frequency and softer stool consistency that may provide a relevant benefit in those that suffer from hard stools and constipation (EC SCF 2003).
farmdaisy® series meet relevant standards of China, Australia as well as Codex in terms of proportioning and balance of nutrients, to help infants to absorb and utilise nutrients effectively and efficiently.
Not all formula products that meet common standards are good at absorption and utilisation by infant and young children. Nutritional composition and ratios of certain nutrients must be carefully designed to achieve a better absorption and utilisation of nutrients. For example, essential amino acids must be presented in infant and follow-on formula and at the minimum level specified for each of them. Ratios e.g. that of long chain omega 6 series fatty acids to long chain omega 3 series fatty acids, DHA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and zinc to copper must comply with the Australian standards,
Food Standards Code Stan2.9.1 Infant Formula Products requires that Follow-on formula must have a potential renal solute load (PRSL) value of no more than 8 mOsm/100kJ.” The PRSL of infant formula is the sum of dietary nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus. The PRSL determines the renal solute load, and, therefore, the osmolar concentration of the urine. When water intake is reduced and/or water losses are increased, the renal concentrating ability may be exceeded, and negative water balance (dehydration) may ensue. Under these circumstances, feedings providing high PRSL lead more rapidly to dehydration than do feedings providing lower PRSL. This requirement of PRSL value prevents your baby from dehydration in such situation and farmdaisy® follow-on formula meets the requirement.
farmdaisy® toddler formula adjust amount of certain nutrients to close to their higher limit levels to address their insufficient intake from common diet, e.g. amount of zinc is raised.